UPDATE: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Hier werden aktuelle Meldungen diskutiert
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UPDATE: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von doelf » 23 Aug 2018, 18:28

Intel bietet einen "Linux Processor Microcode Data File" zum Download an, der Microcode-Updates gegen zahlreiche Sicherheitslücken in den Prozessoren des Marktführers enthält. Bei der neuesten Version 20180807 vom 7. August 2018 gibt es allerdings ein Problem mit der Lizenz, denn diese verbietet Leistungsmessungen.

Moderne CPUs: Schnell aber unsicher
Seit der Dokumentation der ersten Meltdown- und Spectre-Angriffe im Januar 2018 sind Sicherheitslücken in Prozessoren ein Dauerbrenner. Alleine die letzten 30 Tage brachten uns mit ret2spec, SpectreRSB, Spectre 1.1, NetSpectre, Foreshadow und Foreshadow-NG eine Fülle neuer Angriffsmethoden, die auch Cloud-Server bedrohen und spezielle Schutzmechanismen wie Intels "Software Guard eXtensions" (SGX) aushebeln können. Die große Angriffswelle wurde zwar noch nicht gesichtet, doch dies dürfte nur eine Frage der Zeit sein.

Microcode-Updates: Flicken für die CPU
Abhilfe versprechen Microcode-Updates und Software-Aktualisierungen, doch die Hersteller von Computern und Mainboards kommen mit neuen UEFI-Firmwares, welche auch die Microcode-Updates enthalten, nicht mehr nach. Zudem ist der Support für viele Produkte bereits abgelaufen, so dass die betroffenen Kunden gar keine UEFI- oder BIOS-Updates mehr erwarten sollten. In diesem Fall helfen nur noch Microcode-Updates, die vom Betriebssystem während des Bootvorgangs geladen werden. Unter Linux ist dieses Vorgehen üblich, unter Windows eher die Ausnahme. Aufgrund der Tragweite des Problems hat aber auch Microsoft entsprechende Update-Pakete für Windows geschnürt.

Intels Lizenz verbietet Leistungsmessungen
Intel entwickelt Microcode-Updates, um die Fehler in seinen Produkten auszubessern, und die Entwickler der Betriebssysteme geben diese an ihre Kunden weiter. So weit, so gut. Doch die neueste Fassung von Intels Lizenzbedingungen enthält einen Punkt, den man nur noch als unverschämt bezeichnen kann. Unter Punkt 3 mit dem Titel Lizenzeinschränkungen (License Restrictions) findet sich der folgende Satz:

"Unless expressly permitted under the Agreement, You will not, and will not allow any third party to... (v) publish or provide any Software benchmark or comparison test results."
Übersetzung: "Sofern nicht ausdrücklich im Rahmen der Vereinbarung erlaubt, werden weder sie selbst noch über irgendeinen einen Dritten... (v) Software-Benchmarks oder Ergebnisse von Vergleichstests veröffentlichen oder bereitstellen."

Wenn die Entwickler der Betriebssysteme Intels Microcode-Updates an ihre Nutzer weiterreichen wollen, dürfen sie diese nicht mehr über mögliche Leistungsänderungen informieren. Und sie müssen darüber hinaus sicherstellen, dass auch ihre Nutzer Intels Lizenzbedingungen akzeptieren und auf eigene Leistungsmessungen verzichten. Bei Gentoo will man den Benutzern vor der Installation der Microcode-Updates Intels Lizenzbedingungen zur Zustimmung präsentieren, während man bei Debian aufgrund der neuen Lizenzbedingungen bisher auf die Bereitstellung der neuen Microcode-Updates verzichtet hat.

UPDATE: Alles nur ein Missverständnis?
Ein Blick in ältere Microcode-Updates zeigt, dass Intel diese weiterhin ohne Lizenzhinweise (Datei: license) ausliefert. Möglicherweise liegen diese nur Vorabversionen, welche Intel seinen Partnerfirmen für Testzwecke überlässt, bei. Dies würde auch erklären, warum Intel in Punkt 7 die Nutzer der Updates zur Verschwiegenheit verpflichtet. Laut heise online will Intel die Lizenzbedingungen nun überarbeiten. Dies ist aber noch nicht geschehen, was wiederum verwundert, denn es müsste nur die Textdatei "license" aus dem Archiv entfernt werden.


Microcode-Updates: Letzte Änderungen
Die Version 20180807 der Microcode-Updates kümmert sich um Foreshadow und die Angriffe auf SGX. Zuletzt hatte Intel die Option "Speculative Store Bypass Disable" (SSBD, CVE-2018-3639) integriert und Maßnahmen gegen "Rogue System Register Read" (RSRR, CVE-2018-3640) ergriffen.

Quelle:
https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugrepo ... =906158#14
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Re: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von neO » 23 Aug 2018, 19:50

Na, dann darf man doch wild spekulieren, das die Leistung dadurch soo grottenschlecht wird, das es selbst Intel peinlich ist.

Hallo Intel:

Peinlich!
Hic et nunc et in aeternum:
This world is one!
see you in the world of tomorrow

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Re: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von doelf » 24 Aug 2018, 08:25

Wenn man als Anbieter von Cloud-Diensten wegen "Foreshadow" aka "L1 Terminal Fault" auf HyperThreading verzichten muss, ist das in der Tat ein ziemlicher Leistungsverlust.

Aber Intel wirft hier auch ein generelles Problem auf: Die meiste Hardware läuft nicht ohne Software, welche in Form von Firmware oder Microcode in die Geräte bzw. Bauteile integriert ist. Während man die Hardware kauft, lizenziert man die Software lediglich zur Nutzung. Und diese Nutzung kann der Lizenzgeber an Bedingungen knüpfen, beispielsweise dass man die Software nicht auslesen und analysieren darf. Allerdings könnte ein Hersteller, wie Intel es hier versucht, auch die Veröffentlichung unabhängiger Leistungsmessungen untersagen.

Dies ist tatsächlich eine Beschränkung der Software, welche man auf der Hardware ausführen darf. Wenn man diesen Gedanken weiterspinnt, könnte Intel bestimmte Prozessoren an den Einsatz von Windows binden oder die Verwendung des Photoshops statt Gimp vorschreiben. Hier könnten Lizenzgeflechte den Hardware-Herstellern attraktive Nebeneinkünfte ermöglichen. Ob solche Lizenzvereinbarungen einen Pfifferling wert sind, steht auf einem anderen Blatt. Rechtlich haben viele dieser Nutzungsbedingungen nach deutschem und europäischem Recht keinen Bestand.

Gruß

Michael
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Re: UPDATE: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von doelf » 24 Aug 2018, 08:59

UPDATE: Alles nur ein Missverständnis?
Ein Blick in ältere Microcode-Updates zeigt, dass Intel diese weiterhin ohne Lizenzhinweise (Datei: license) ausliefert. Möglicherweise liegen diese nur Vorabversionen, welche Intel seinen Partnerfirmen für Testzwecke überlässt, bei. Dies würde auch erklären, warum Intel in Punkt 7 die Nutzer der Updates zur Verschwiegenheit verpflichtet. Laut heise online will Intel die Lizenzbedingungen nun überarbeiten. Dies ist aber noch nicht geschehen, was wiederum verwundert, denn es müsste nur die Textdatei "license" aus dem Archiv entfernt werden.
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Re: UPDATE: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von Mausolos » 25 Aug 2018, 11:47

Wie ist denn jetzt der aktuelle Stand?
Es gibt im neuen Archiv Intel microcode-20180807a.tgz eine neuere Datei 'license' mit dem Zeitstempel '23. Aug. 2018, 21:34 Uhr'
War dieses Archiv am 24. Aug. 2018, 08:59 Uhr noch gar nicht „Online“?
Linux :)

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Re: UPDATE: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von doelf » 27 Aug 2018, 08:47

24. Aug. 2018, 08:59:
- Archiv Version 20180807 heruntergeladen, alte licence mit altem Zeitstempel.
- Zum Vergleich ältere Archive heruntergeladen, die enthielten gar keine licence.

Ich schau mal nach dem neuen Stand...
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Re: UPDATE: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von doelf » 27 Aug 2018, 08:53

Wenn ich auf die Download-Seite ( https://downloadcenter.intel.com/downlo ... a-File?v=t ) gehe bekomme ich als "latest" (also: neueste) weiterhin das Paket vom 7.8. präsentiert. Darin folgende licence:
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this Agreement. The Parties consent to personal jurisdiction and venue in those
courts. A Party that obtains a judgment against the other Party in the courts
identified in this section may enforce that judgment in any court that has
jurisdiction over the Parties.

Licensee's specific rights may vary from country to country.
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doelf
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Re: UPDATE: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von doelf » 27 Aug 2018, 08:58

Autsch - Das wurde mit der ganz heißen Nadel gestrickt!

Wenn man auf der Seite der "latest version" auf "latest" klickt, kommt man zur Version 20180807a.

Dazu wird dann aber folgende Warnung angezeigt:
A newer version of this software is available. Click here to get the latest version of this software.
Klickt man auf den Link zur "newer version" landet man wieder bei der Version 20180807 mit der alten licence...
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Re: UPDATE: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von doelf » 27 Aug 2018, 09:01

Version 20180807a enthält folgende licence:
Copyright (c) 2018 Intel Corporation.
All rights reserved.

Redistribution.

Redistribution and use in binary form, without modification, are permitted,
provided that the following conditions are met:

1. Redistributions must reproduce the above copyright notice and the
following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
with the distribution.

2. Neither the name of Intel Corporation nor the names of its suppliers may
be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
specific prior written permission.

3. No reverse engineering, decompilation, or disassembly of this software
is permitted.


"Binary form" includes any format that is commonly used for electronic
conveyance that is a reversible, bit-exact translation of binary
representation to ASCII or ISO text, for example "uuencode".

DISCLAIMER.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
(warum bei diesem Archiv ein zusätzlicher Überordner namens "." eingeführt wurde, ist mir wieder rätselhaft...)
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Mausolos
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Re: UPDATE: Intels Lizenz für Microcode-Updates untersagt Benchmarks

Beitrag von Mausolos » 28 Aug 2018, 09:37

doelf hat geschrieben:
27 Aug 2018, 09:01
(warum bei diesem Archiv ein zusätzlicher Überordner namens "." eingeführt wurde, ist mir wieder rätselhaft...)
Rätselhaft ist das nicht.

Da hat jemand einfach keine Ahnung, wie man einen tar-Befehl richtig auf der Kommandozeile eintippt.
Genau genommen hat das gar nichts mit tar zu tun, sondern mit dem logischen Denkvermögen des Benutzers. :wink:
Linux :)

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